Inter-Cellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is also known as Cluster of Differentiation 54 (CD54), is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and is a cell surface glycoprotein which is typically expressed in low concentrations on endothelial cells and cells of the immune system. The protein encoded by this gene is a type of intercellular adhesion molecule continuously present in low concentrations in the membranes of leukocytes and endothelial cells. Upon cytokine stimulation, the concentrations greatly increase. ICAM-1 can be induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and is expressed by the vascular endothelium, macrophages, and lymphocytes. ICAM-1 is a ligand for LFA-1 (integrin), a receptor found on leukocytes. When activated, leukocytes bind to endothelial cells via ICAM-1/LFA-1 and then transmigrate into tissues. ICAM-1 has been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Levels of ICAM-1 are shown to be significantly elevated in patients with SAH over control subjects in many studies. ICAM-1 expressed by respiratory epithelial cells is also the binding site for rhinovirus, the causative agent of most common colds.
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