CCL2/C-C motif chemokine 2/MCP-1/MCAF
Chemokines are a superfamily of secreted proteins involved in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. The superfamily is divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of N-terminal cysteine residues of the mature peptide. CCL2, a member of the CC subfamily, is characterized by two adjacent cysteine residues. CCL2 displays chemotactic activity for monocytes and basophils but not for neutrophils or eosinophils. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, like psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. It binds to chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR4. Elevated expression of the encoded protein is associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.