Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is also known as oncogene 24p3 or neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), MSFI, The binding of lipocalin-2 to bacterial siderophores is important in the innate immune response to bacterial infection. Upon encountering invading bacteria the toll-like receptors on immune cells stimulate the synthesis and secretion of lipocalin-2. Secreted lipocalin-2 then limits bacterial growth by sequestering iron-containing siderophores. Lipocalin-2 also functions as a growth factor. LCN2 is strongly upregulated during inflammation and is upregulated by interleukin 1 (but not TNF alpha) in humans. There are indications that some forms of acne could be caused due to the gene not being transcribed, and that Isotretinoin corrects this. NFAT3 (NFATc4)NFAT by blocking the expression of LCN2 inhibits breast carcinoma cell motility. Recent studies have revealed that NGAL plays an important role in the physiopathology of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) mediated by BCR-ABL.
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