Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. IL-10 is an immunosuppressive cytokine produced by a variety of mammalian cell types including macrophages, monocytes, T cells, B cells and keratinocytes. Mature human IL-10 shares 72% - 86% amino acid sequence identity with bovine, canine, equine, feline, mouse, ovine, porcine, and rat IL-10. Whereas human IL-10 is active on mouse cells, mouse IL-10 does not act on human cells. IL-10 is capable of inhibiting synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-3, TNFα and GM-CSF made by cells such as macrophages and regulatory T-cells. It also displays a potent ability to suppress the antigen-presentation capacity of antigen presenting cells. However, it is also stimulatory towards certain T cells and mast cells and stimulates B cell maturation and antibody production. Knockout studies suggested the function of Interleukin-10 / IL-10 as an essential immunoregulator in the intestinal tract. Patients with Crohn's disease react favorably towards treatment with bacteria producing recombinant interleukin-10, showing the importance of interleukin-10 for counteracting excessive immunity in the human body.
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