Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) is also known as adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2, DPPIV or CD26 is antigenic enzyme expressed on the surface of most cell types and is associated with immune regulation, signal transduction and apoptosis. It is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein and a serine exopeptidase that cleaves X-proline dipeptides from the N-terminus of polypeptides. The substrates of DPPIV are proline (or alanine)-containing peptides and include growth factors, chemokines, neuropeptides, and vasoactive peptides. DPPIV plays a major role in glucose metabolism. It is responsible for the degradation of incretins such as GLP-1. DPPIV plays an important role in tumor biology, and is useful as a marker for various cancers, with its levels either on the cell surface or in the serum increased in some neoplasms and decreased in others. DPPIV also binds the enzyme adenosine deaminase specifically and with high affinity. The significance of this interaction has yet to be established.
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